ln - make links between files


ln [options] source [dest]
ln [options] source... directory
[-bdfinsvF] [-S backup-suffix] [-V {numbered,existing,simple}] [--version-control={numbered,existing,simple}] [--backup] [--directory] [--force] [--interactive] [--no-dereference] [--symbolic] [--verbose] [--suffix=backup-suffix] [--help] [--version]


This manual page documents the GNU version of ln . If the last argument names an existing directory, ln links each other given file into a file with the same name in that directory. If only one file is given, it links that file into the current directory. Otherwise, if only two files are given, it links the first onto the second. It is an error if the last argument is not a directory and more than two files are given. It makes hard links by default. By default, it does not remove existing files.


-b, --backup
Make backups of files that are about to be removed.

-d, -F, --directory
Allow the super-user to make hard links to directories.

-f, --force
Remove existing destination files.

-i, --interactive
Prompt whether to remove existing destination files.

-n, --no-dereference
When the specified destination is a symbolic link to a directory, attempt to replace the symbolic link rather than dereferencing it to create a link in the directory to which it points. This option is most useful in conjunction with --force.

-s, --symbolic
Make symbolic links instead of hard links. This option produces an error message on systems that do not support symbolic links.

-v, --verbose
Print the name of each file before linking it.

Print a usage message on standard output and exit successfully.

Print version information on standard output then exit successfully.

-S, --suffix backup-suffix
The suffix used for making simple backup files can be set with the SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX environment variable, which can be overridden by this option. If neither of those is given, the default is `~', as it is in Emacs.

-V, --version-control {numbered,existing,simple}
The type of backups made can be set with the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable, which can be overridden by this option. If VERSION_CONTROL is not set and this option is not given, the default backup type is `existing'. The value of the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable and the argument to this option are like the GNU Emacs `version-control' variable; they also recognize synonyms that are more descriptive. The valid values are (unique abbreviations are accepted):

`t' or `numbered'
Always make numbered backups.

`nil' or `existing'
Make numbered backups of files that already have them, simple backups of the others.

`never' or `simple'
Always make simple backups.